The incidence of cardiac death is higher among patients receiving dialysis compared with the general population. Although obstructive coronary artery disease is involved in cardiac deaths in the general population, deaths in hemodialysis patients occur in the apparent absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. To study this further, we prospectively enrolled 155 patients receiving hemodialysis after angiography had confirmed the absence of obstructive coronary lesions. All patients were examined by single-photon emission computed tomography using the iodinated fatty acid analog, BMIPP, the uptake of which was graded in 17 standard myocardial segments and assessed as summed scores. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). During a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 42 patients died of cardiac events. Stepwise Cox hazard analysis associated cardiac death with reduced BMIPP uptake and increased insulin resistance. Patients were assigned to subgroups based on BMIPP summed scores and HOMA-IR cutoff values for cardiac death of 12 and 5.1, respectively, determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Cardiac death-free survival rates at 5 years were the lowest (32.2%) in the subgroup with both a summed score and assessment equal to or above the cutoff values compared with any other combination (52.9-98.7%) above, equal to, or below the thresholds. Thus, impaired myocardial fatty acid metabolism and insulin resistance may be associated with cardiac death among hemodialysis patients without obstructive coronary artery disease.