Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone blood levels rise following progressive loss of renal function. Here we measured parameters of phosphate metabolism in 100 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in stage 1 or 2 of chronic kidney disease, 20 patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease, and 26 with type 2 diabetes. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. The mean levels of FGF23 were significantly (4-fold) higher in ADPKD compared to non-diabetic and diabetic patients, and healthy volunteers. Mean serum phosphate levels were significantly lower in ADPKD patients compared to non-diabetic and diabetic patients, and the healthy volunteers. The prevalence of hypophosphatemia was 38, 25, 27, and 5% in ADPKD, non-diabetic and diabetic patients, and healthy volunteers, respectively. The tubular maximum of phosphate reabsorption per glomerular filtration rate was lowest in ADPKD patients with a significantly high positive correlation with serum phosphate levels. Estimated glomerular filtration rates were approximately 100 ml/min per 1.73 m² in all groups and parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolite levels were in the normal range. Thus, FGF23 was substantially elevated in ADPKD patients compared to other CKD patients matched for glomerular filtration rate, and was associated with increased renal phosphate excretion. The mechanism for this anomaly will require further study.