Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell

J Med Food. 2010 Dec;13(6):1431-42. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.1165. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Abstract

A preparative column chromatographic method for isolation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on the hepatoma cell Hep3B. An open column containing 70 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:2.5, wt/wt) was used to elute carotenoid with 2% ethanol in ethyl acetate and chlorophyll with 50% ethanol in acetone. After high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the carotenoid fraction was composed of all-trans- and cis-isomers of lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene as well as epoxy-containing carotenoids, while the chlorophyll fraction consisted of chlorophylls a and b and their derivatives. Both carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions as well as lutein and chlorophyll a standards at 50-100 μg/mL were effective against Hep3B cells with a dose-dependent response with the following order: carotenoid fraction > chlorophyll fraction > lutein > chlorophyll a. For all treatments, the cell cycle was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase, with Hep3B cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / analysis
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy*
  • Carotenoids / analysis
  • Carotenoids / chemistry
  • Carotenoids / isolation & purification*
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chlorophyll / analysis
  • Chlorophyll / chemistry
  • Chlorophyll / isolation & purification*
  • Chlorophyll / pharmacology*
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / chemistry
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / isolation & purification
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology
  • G1 Phase / drug effects
  • Gynostemma / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Necrosis / chemically induced
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Resting Phase, Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Chlorophyll
  • Carotenoids