Background: Patients with a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism (IVTE) have an estimated 10% incidence of cancer within 12 months after diagnosis. However, the utility of screening for cancer in this population is controversial.
Methods: In this prospective concurrently controlled cohort study, limited and extensive cancer screening strategies were compared. All 630 patients underwent baseline screening consisting of history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests and chest X-ray. In the extensive screening group abdominal and chest CT scan and mammography were added. Outcomes were incidence and curability of cancer, and cancer-related and overall mortality.
Results: In 12 of the 342 (3.5%) patients in the extensive screening group malignancy was diagnosed at baseline compared with 2.4% (seven of 288 patients) in the limited screening group. Extensive screening detected six additional cancers (2.0%; 95% CI, 0.74-4.3), of which three were potentially curable. During a median 2.5 years of follow-up, cancer was diagnosed in 3.7% and 5.0% in the extensive and limited screening groups, respectively. In the extensive screening group 26 patients (7.6%) died compared with 24 (8.3%) in the limited screening group; adjusted hazard ratio 1.22 (95% CI, 0.69-2.22). Of these deaths 17 (5.0%) in the extensive screening group and 8 (2.8%) in the limited screening group were cancer related; adjusted hazard ratio 1.79 (95% CI, 0.74-4.35).
Conclusions: The low yield of extensive screening and lack of survival benefit do not support routine screening for cancer with abdominal and chest CT scan and mammography in patients with a first episode of IVTE.
© 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.