Beta-arrestins as regulators of signal termination and transduction: how do they determine what to scaffold?

Cell Signal. 2011 Apr;23(4):621-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.10.004. Epub 2010 Oct 12.


Over the last decade β-arrestins have emerged as pleiotropic scaffold proteins, capable of mediating numerous diverse responses to multiple agonists. Most well characterized are the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulated β-arrestin signals, which are sometimes synergistic with, and sometimes independent of, heterotrimeric G-protein signals. β-arrestin signaling involves the recruitment of downstream signaling moieties to β-arrestins; in many cases specific sites of interaction between β-arrestins and the downstream target have been identified. As more information unfolds about the nature of β-arrestin scaffolding interactions, it is evident that these proteins are capable of adopting multiple conformations which in turn reveal a specific set of interacting domains. Recruitment of β-arrestin to a specific GPCR can promote formation of a specific subset of available β-arrestin scaffolds, allowing for a higher level of specificity to given agonists. This review discusses recent advances in β-arrestin signaling, discussing the molecular details of a subset of known β-arrestin scaffolds and the significance of specific binding interactions on the ultimate cellular response.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arrestins / metabolism*
  • Binding Sites
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Multimerization
  • Protein Stability
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • beta-Arrestins


  • Arrestins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • beta-Arrestins
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases