Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension and the grading of obstructive hydrocephalus: the prediction of outcome of a special life-threatening entity

Neurosurgery. 2010 Nov;67(5):1243-51; discussion 1252. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181ef25de.


Background: Primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) with secondary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) accounts for the highest in-hospital mortality after stroke.

Objective: To analyze predictors and the role of acute hydrocephalus in outcome, especially 30-day mortality or an unfavorable outcome at 6 months. In addition, a new risk stratification tool for SICH- IVH was developed.

Methods: Hospital charts of 104 of 110 SICH-IVH patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent at least 1 external ventricular drainage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent prognostic predictors for 30-day mortality and outcome. Outcome was determined by the modified Rankin Scale. On the basis of the independent predictors, we developed an IVH scoring system. The IVH score was tested with prospective data from 51 patients and was compared with established intracerebral hemorrhage scoring systems.

Results: An initial SICH volume of 60 cm³ or greater, severe hydrocephalus, Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less, and age 70 years and older were independent outcome predictors. Different cutoff values for the prediction of 30-day mortality and functional outcome were defined. The IVH score was best for the prediction of 30-day mortality.

Conclusion: Severe hydrocephalus is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality in SICH with ventricular extension. The IVH score is a simple and reliable tool for predicting 30-day mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Cerebral Ventricles / blood supply
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hydrocephalus / diagnosis*
  • Hydrocephalus / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / mortality*
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult