Small bowel intussusception is a rare long-term complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the etiology of which remains unclear. Except for one series reporting on 23 patients, case reports represent the vast majority of all cases reported so far. With this complete review of the world literature, based on a total of 63 patients including 2 of our own cases, we provide an extensive overview of the subject. The origin of intussusception after gastric bypass is different from that of intussusception of other causes, in that there is usually no lead point. It is likely related to motility disorders in the divided small bowel, especially in the Roux limb. This rare condition may cause obstruction and lead to bowel necrosis if not recognized and treated promptly. Clinical presentation is not specific. Computerized tomography scan represents the diagnostic test of choice, but surgery is sometimes the only way to establish the diagnosis. Treatment may be limited to reduction if the small bowel is viable, but resection of the affected segment is recommended on the basis of this review, since it seems to result in fewer recurrences. Knowledge of this entity and a high index of suspicion are required to make the correct diagnosis and offer appropriate treatment in a timely fashion.