Object: Intracranial stenting has improved the ability to treat wide-neck aneurysms via endovascular techniques. However, stent placement necessitates the use of antiplatelet agents, and the latter may complicate the treatment of patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms who demonstrate hydrocephalus and require ventriculostomy. Antiplatelet agents in this setting could increase the incidence of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhagic complications, but there are insufficient data in the medical literature to quantify this potential risk. The aim of this study was to directly quantify the risk of ventriculostomy-related hemorrhage in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with stent-assisted coiling.
Methods: The authors retrospectively identified 131 patients who underwent endovascular treatment for an acutely ruptured aneurysm as well as ventriculostomy or ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. The rate of hemorrhagic complications associated with ventriculostomy or VP shunt insertion was compared between patients who underwent coiling without a stent (Group 1) and those who underwent stent-assisted coiling and dual antiplatelet therapy (Group 2).
Results: One hundred nine ventriculostomies or VP shunt placement procedures were performed in 91 patients in Group 1, and 50 procedures were undertaken in 40 patients in Group 2. The rates of radiographic hemorrhage and symptomatic hemorrhage were significantly higher in Group 2 (32% vs 14.7%, p = 0.02; and 8% vs 0.9%, p = 0.03, respectively). On multivariate analyses, Group 2 had 3.42 times the odds of a radiographic hemorrhage (95% CI 1.46-8.04, p = 0.0048) after adjusting for antiplatelet use prior to admission.
Conclusions: The application of dual antiplatelet therapy in stent-assisted coiling of acutely ruptured aneurysms is associated with an increase in the risk of hemorrhagic complications following ventriculostomy or VP shunt placement, as compared with its use in a coiling procedure without a stent.