Objectives: We sought to clarify the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy for preventing atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).
Background: The inflammatory process may cause acute AF recurrence after PVI. However, no studies have examined the relationship between corticosteroid administration and AF recurrence after PVI.
Methods: A total of 125 patients with paroxysmal AF were randomized to receive either corticosteroids (corticosteroid group) or a placebo (placebo group). In the corticosteroid group, intravenous hydrocortisone (2 mg/kg) was given the day of the procedure, and oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered for 3 days after the PVI. The body temperature and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level were measured before and on each of the first 3 days after ablation.
Results: The prevalence of immediate AF recurrence (≤3 days after the PVI) was significantly lower in the corticosteroid group (7%) than in the placebo group (31%). The maximum body temperature and C-reactive protein during the initial 3 days after ablation and the increase in the body temperature and C-reactive protein level from baseline were significantly lower in the corticosteroid group than in the placebo group. Corticosteroid treatment did not decrease AF recurrences between 4 and 30 days after ablation. The AF-free rate at 14 months post-ablation was greater in the corticosteroid group (85%) than in the placebo group (71%, p=0.032 by the log-rank test).
Conclusions: Transient use of small amounts of corticosteroids shortly after AF ablation may be effective and safe for preventing not only immediate AF recurrences but also AF recurrences during the mid-term follow-up period after PVI.
Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.