The commonly used regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection consist of administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and 1 to 3 antimicrobial agents, such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, fluoroquinolone, or tetracycline. Each agent has its own pharmacologic characteristics. PPIs are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), which is polymorphic. CYP2C19 genotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PPIs influence the eradication rates of H pylori infection by PPI-containing regimens. Amoxicillin is a time-dependent antibiotic, whereas clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolone are not. The plasma half-life of antimicrobial agents also differs among these antibiotics. To achieve consistently high eradication rates, the eradication regimens must be designed based on a good understanding of the resistance patterns of the bacteria and the pharmacologic characteristics of the agents used for H pylori eradication therapy.
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