Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a newly identified lipase, is a rate-limiting enzyme for triglyceride hydrolysis in adipocytes. The regulatory proteins involved in ATGL-mediated lipolysis in fat tissue are not fully identified and understood. The G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2) is an inhibitor of ATGL activity by interacting with ATGL through the hydrophobic domain of G0S2. Here, for the first time, we have cloned the coding sequence of G0S2 cDNA for the chicken, turkey, and quail. Sequence comparisons with mammals revealed that the avian G0S2 also have a conserved hydrophobic domain. Avian G0S2 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissues relative to other tested tissues. Within the adipose tissue, G0S2 is expressed 20-fold greater in the adipocyte than in the stromal-vascular (SV) fraction (P < 0.001). Expression of G0S2 mRNA gradually increased during differentiation of chicken adipocytes in culture (P < 0.05). However, there is G0S2 expression in embryonic adipose tissue, SV fraction, and primary preadipocytes before confluence that generally have an increased capacity of cell proliferation, which indicates it has an important role in adipocyte differentiation rather than proliferation. For a better understanding of how G0S2 responds to environmental stimuli, chickens were fasted for 24 h and then refed. Expression of G0S2 in adipose tissue was dramatically decreased (P < 0.05) in the chickens and quail after a 24-h fasting period, and increased to the control level after refeeding. In contrast to G0S2 expression, ATGL expression was induced (P < 0.05) after the 24-h fasting period and rapidly returned to the control level during the refeeding period. These data indicate that changes in lipolytic activities of adipose tissue in vivo can be regulated by G0S2 expression, as an inhibitor of ATGL.