Assessment of the relationship of vitamin D with serum antioxidant vitamins E and A and their deficiencies in Iranian pregnant women

Saudi Med J. 2010 Oct;31(10):1119-23.


Objective: To assess the relationship between vitamin D and serum antioxidant vitamins E and A, and their deficiencies in pregnant women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the maternity clinic of Naghavi Specialists and Subspecialities Polyclinic, affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences Kashan, Iran between April 2008 and August 2009. One hundred and forty-seven pregnant women were recruited. Vitamin D, A, and E status were assessed using serum at 5-9 months of pregnancy. The prevalence of vitamin deficiency was reported using defined cutoff values. Correlations between vitamin D and vitamins A and E were reported. Data were compared using the analysis of variance and coefficient correlation linear Pearson's. The relative difference between the groups were considered statistically significant (p<0.05).

Results: Serum concentrations of vitamin D were 7.2 +/- 2.31, 17.72 +/- 5 and 33.05 +/- 0.94 ug/ml, for vitamin E 2.15 +/- 1.3 and 8.07+/- 2.3 ug/ml, and for vitamin A 0.16+/- 0.05 and 0.46+/-0.13. We used the defined cutoff values in determining vitamins D, A, and E deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 95.8%, vitamin A was 7%, and vitamin E was 58.6%. The correlation coefficient between serum vitamin D and vitamin E shows an inverse relationship (r=0.24, p=0.004).

Conclusion: Extent vitamins D, A, and E deficiency among pregnant women is a major public health problem in Kashan, Iran.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood*
  • Vitamin A / blood*
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin E / blood*
  • Vitamin E Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin E Deficiency / complications
  • Young Adult


  • Antioxidants
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E