Immunological, antioxidative, and morphological response in combined treatment of ofloxacin and Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 probiotic in Salmonella Typhimurium murine model

APMIS. 2010 Nov;118(11):864-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02672.x. Epub 2010 Sep 14.


We aimed to elucidate the immunological (cytokines), biochemical (antioxidative), and patho-morphological responses in the gut and liver evoked by the addition of Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 to ofloxacin (OFX) treatment in an experimental infection model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. After challenge with S. Typhimurium and treatment according to different schemes, either with OFX and/or addition of L. fermentum ME-3, the mice were killed. Blood, liver, spleen, and small intestine samples were plated to detect S. Typhimurium and lactobacilli. Histological slides were prepared from the liver and ileum. The cytokines (IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), the glutathione peroxidase and reductase, the glutathione ratio, and the lipid peroxides (LPO) in mucosa of the small intestine and liver were estimated. The addition of L. fermentum ME-3 to OFX increased the eradication of S. Typhimurium from tested sites because of antagonistic and antioxidative properties, reduced the presence of typhoid nodules in the liver, and decreased the values of LPO. The immunological response included the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α and the increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in the livers of mice without typhoid nodules.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cytokines / analysis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / analysis
  • Glutathione Reductase / analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intestine, Small / enzymology
  • Intestine, Small / immunology
  • Intestine, Small / microbiology
  • Lactobacillus fermentum / physiology*
  • Lipid Peroxides / analysis
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / immunology
  • Liver / microbiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Ofloxacin / pharmacology*
  • Paratyphoid Fever / drug therapy
  • Paratyphoid Fever / immunology
  • Paratyphoid Fever / microbiology
  • Paratyphoid Fever / therapy*
  • Probiotics / pharmacology*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / growth & development*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / metabolism
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Spleen / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Lipid Peroxides
  • Ofloxacin
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Reductase