Patients with a neurogenic bladder are at risk for several urologic complications including hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, renal failure, urinary tract infections, calculus disease, bladder cancer, sexual dysfunction including infertility, and the destroyed bladder and urethra. The management of filling bladder pressures and regular, complete emptying, ideally with clean intermittent catheterization, can prevent or delay many of these complications. Even with optimum management, complications may still develop over time, necessitating regular urologic follow-up to recognize, treat, and prevent further complications. The ultimate goal of the urologist in treating the patient with a neurogenic bladder is to allow for preservation of renal function and continence with minimum complications.
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