Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in children with special needs

Eur J Orthod. 2011 Aug;33(4):413-8. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjq094. Epub 2010 Oct 18.

Abstract

Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of life. The present study analysed the prevalence of malocclusion in children with Down syndrome (DS) and cerebral palsy (CP) as well as associations with individual, socio-economic, and behavioural factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 181 mothers and their children with DS and CP (aged 3-12 years) at two institutions for individuals with special needs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the mothers and a dental examination of the children. Clinical examination recorded the following: anterior/posterior crossbite and anterior openbite (AOB). The control variables were the mother's level of education as well as the gender and age of the child. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. An anterior crossbite was present in 20.4 percent, a posterior crossbite in 21.5 percent, and an AOB in 29.8 percent. The presence of DS, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking habits for 24 months or more was determinant factors for an anterior crossbite and the presence of DS, bottle feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits for 24 months or more, and respiratory infection in the previous 6 months was determinant factors for a posterior crossbite. The presence of CP and non-nutritive sucking habits for 24 months or more was determinant factors for an AOB. Thus, the prevalence of malocclusion in children with special needs was associated with the type of disability, use of bottle feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits for 24 months or more, and respiratory infection in the previous 6 months.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Bottle Feeding / statistics & numerical data
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data
  • Cerebral Palsy / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Down Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Educational Status
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Fingersucking
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / epidemiology*
  • Mothers / education
  • Open Bite / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors