TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers

Nanoscale. 2011 Jan;3(1):71-85. doi: 10.1039/c0nr00583e. Epub 2010 Oct 19.


Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios>100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (∼74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ζ-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cellulose, Oxidized / chemistry*
  • Cyclic N-Oxides / chemistry*
  • Elasticity
  • Nanofibers / chemistry*
  • Nanofibers / ultrastructure
  • Static Electricity
  • Tensile Strength
  • Water / chemistry


  • Cellulose, Oxidized
  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Water