We evaluated a nurse-delivered adherence intervention in a preliminary randomized controlled trial among 70 HIV-positive outpatients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Beijing, China. In both arms, participants received a 30-min educational session, a pillbox, and a referral to a peer support group. In the enhanced arm, participants could choose an electronic reminder device, three sessions of counseling either alone or with a treatment adherence partner, or both reminder and counseling. Survey assessments and blood draws occurred at baseline, post-intervention (13 weeks), and follow-up (25 weeks). Primary outcomes were 7-day and 30-day adherence assessed by self-report and electronic drug monitoring (EDM), and secondary outcomes were HIV-1 RNA viral load and CD4 count. The intervention was feasible and well received. It led to some improvement in self-reported and EDM-assessed adherence but not the biological outcomes. Providing counseling and facilitating the use of electronic reminders to patients initiating ART merits further investigation as a culturally viable means of promoting adherence in China.