Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are potent growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta superfamily. To date over 20 members have been identified in humans with varying functions during processes such as embryogenesis, skeletal formation, hematopoiesis and neurogenesis. Though their functions have been identified, less is known regarding levels of regulation at the extracellular matrix, membrane surface, and receptor activation. Further, current models of activation lack the integration of these regulatory mechanisms. This review focuses on the different levels of regulation, ranging from the release of BMPs into the extracellular components to receptor activation for different BMPs. It also highlights areas in research that is lacking or contradictory.
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