Structure of the gap junction channel and its implications for its biological functions

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 Apr;68(7):1115-29. doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0551-z. Epub 2010 Oct 21.


Gap junctions consist of arrays of intercellular channels composed of integral membrane proteins called connexin in vertebrates. Gap junction channels regulate the passage of ions and biological molecules between adjacent cells and, therefore, are critically important in many biological activities, including development, differentiation, neural activity, and immune response. Mutations in connexin genes are associated with several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, skin disease, deafness, and developmental abnormalities. The activity of gap junction channels is regulated by the membrane voltage, intracellular microenvironment, interaction with other proteins, and phosphorylation. Each connexin channel has its own property for conductance and molecular permeability. A number of studies have tried to reveal the molecular architecture of the channel pore that should confer the connexin-specific permeability/selectivity properties and molecular basis for the gating and regulation. In this review, we give an overview of structural studies and describe the structural and functional relationship of gap junction channels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Connexin 26
  • Connexins / chemistry
  • Connexins / genetics
  • Connexins / metabolism
  • Gap Junctions / chemistry*
  • Gap Junctions / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Permeability
  • Protein Conformation*
  • Protein Isoforms / chemistry
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Connexins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Connexin 26