HIV-1 integrase sequence variability in antiretroviral naïve patients and in triple-class experienced patients subsequently treated with raltegravir

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Dec;26(12):1323-6. doi: 10.1089/aid.2010.0123. Epub 2010 Oct 21.


Viruses were sequenced from 75 antiretroviral therapy (ARV)-naïve and from 75 ARV-treated patients who subsequently received a raltegravir-containing regimen. No major integrase inhibitor (INI)-resistance mutations were present in the 150 integrase (IN) sequences. Four ARV-naïve (5.3%) and two ARV-treated patients (2.7%) had one of the following minor INI-resistance mutations: L74M, E157Q, G163R, and R263K but there was no association between baseline raltegravir genotype and subsequent response to raltegravir treatment. We also combined our sequences with 4170 previously published group M IN sequences from INI-naïve patients to assess IN sequence variability and compared our findings with those of a study we performed in 2008 using data from 1563 patients. The number of polymorphic IN positions increased from 40% to 41% between the two studies. However, none of the major INI-resistance mutations was found to be polymorphic in either study and there were no significant changes in the prevalence of any of the minor INI-resistance mutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acid Substitution / genetics
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Genetic Variation*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV Integrase / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Pyrrolidinones / therapeutic use*
  • Raltegravir Potassium
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Pyrrolidinones
  • Raltegravir Potassium
  • HIV Integrase
  • p31 integrase protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Associated data

  • GENBANK/HM450153
  • GENBANK/HM450302