Background: Obesity is widely recognised as an important risk factor for colorectal cancer (CC).
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of CC on circulating concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory and angiogenesis-related factors in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT).
Methods: VAT biopsies were obtained from 18 healthy individuals and 11 patients with CC. Real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to quantify gene expression levels and zymographic analyses were used to determine the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Results: Patients with CC exhibited increased mRNA expression levels of lipocalin-2 (P=.014), osteopontin (P=.027), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=.016) and chitinase-3 like-1 (P=.006) compared to control subjects in VAT. Gene expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α, vascular endothelial growth factor and MMP-2 were significantly higher (P<.05) in VAT of patients with CC. The expression of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin growth factor binding protein 3 and MMP-9 followed the same trend, although no significant differences were reached. The enzymatic activity of MMP-9 was increased (P<.001) in patients with CC. Furthermore, individuals with CC showed increased (P<.05) circulating concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor α and hepatocyte growth factor, whereas levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin were decreased (P<.01).
Conclusion: These findings represent the first observation that mRNA levels of the novel inflammatory factors lipocalin-2, chitinase-3 like-1 and osteopontin are increased in human VAT of subjects with CC. This observation together with the up-regulation of angiogenic factors suggests that adipokines secreted by VAT may be involved in the development of colon cancer.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.