Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to transfer knowledge coming from model fish species to non-model fish species of economic or/and evolutionary interest. Such transfer is of importance as functional studies either are difficult to perform with most non-model species. The first comparative map constructed using the human and the chimpanzee genome allowed the identification of putative orthologues. Although comparative mapping in teleosts is still in its infancy, five model teleost genomes from different orders have been fully sequenced to date and the sequencing of several commercially important species are also underway or near completion. The accessibility of these whole genome sequences and rapid developments in genomics of fish species are paving the way towards new and valuable research in comparative genetics and genomics. With the accumulation of information in model species, the genetic and genomic characterization of non-model, but economically, physiologically or evolutionary important species is now feasible. Furthermore, comparison of low coverage gene maps of non-model fish species against fully sequenced fish species will enhance the efficiency of candidate gene identification projected for quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for traits of special interest.
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