Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):159-67. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1642. Epub 2010 Oct 20.


Context: The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) cohort represents the largest and best-characterized national sample of American youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes.

Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the TODAY randomized clinical trial.

Design: Participants were recruited over 4 yr at 15 clinical centers in the United States (n = 704) and enrolled, randomized, treated, and followed up 2-6 yr.

Setting: The study was conducted at pediatric diabetes care clinics and practices.

Participants: Eligible participants were aged 10-17 yr inclusive, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 2 yr and had a body mass index at the 85th percentile or greater.

Interventions: After baseline data collection, participants were randomized to one of the following groups: 1) metformin alone, 2) metformin plus rosiglitazone, or 3) metformin plus a lifestyle program of weight management.

Main outcome measures: Baseline data presented include demographics, clinical/medical history, biochemical measurements, and clinical and biochemical abnormalities.

Results: At baseline the cohort included the following: 64.9% were female; mean age was 14.0 yr; mean diabetes duration was 7.8 months; mean body mass index Z-score was 2.15; 89.4% had a family history of diabetes; 41.1% were Hispanic, 31.5% were non-Hispanic black; 38.8% were living with both biological parents; 41.5% had a household annual income of less than $25,000; 26.3% had a highest education level of parent/guardian less than a high school degree; 26.3% had a blood pressure at the 90th percentile or greater; 13.6% had a blood pressure at the 95th percentile or greater; 13.0% had microalbuminuria; 79.8% had a low high-density lipoprotein level; and 10.2% had high triglycerides.

Conclusions: The TODAY cohort is predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups, with low socioeconomic status and a family history of diabetes. Clinical and biochemical abnormalities and comorbidities are prevalent within 2 yr of diagnosis. These findings contribute greatly to our understanding of American youth with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / ethnology
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Physical Examination
  • Quality of Life


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Lipids

Grant support