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, 45 (12), 1147-58

Discrimination of n-3 Rich Oils by Gas Chromatography

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Discrimination of n-3 Rich Oils by Gas Chromatography

Pedro Araujo et al. Lipids.

Abstract

Exploring the capabilities of instrumental techniques for discriminating n-3 rich oils derived from animals is a very important though much neglected area that was emphasized more than 100 years ago. In this study the potential of gas chromatography (GC) for discriminating full fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles from fish (cod liver and salmon) and marine mammal (seal and whale) oils is evaluated by means of principal component analysis (PCA). The FAME profiles from plant oils such as rapeseed, linseed and soy oils and seven different brands of n-3 supplements are also used in the discrimination process. The results from the PCA plots can reliably distinguish between plant, n-3 supplements, fish and marine mammal oils. By removing the contribution of the n-3 supplements and plant oils it is possible to discriminate between types of fish and marine animal oils. GC offers a rapid, simple and convenient means of discriminating oils from different species, brands and grades.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
PC1 score plot for the different kinds of oils obtained after computing a 47 × 34 (samples × FAME profiles) data matrix. The different supplements and providers are designated by numbered letter Ks. For details regarding the providers see “Experimental”
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
PC1 and PC2 score plot for the different kinds of oils obtained after computing a 47 × 34 (samples × FAME profiles) data matrix. The different supplements and providers are designated by numbered letter Ks. For details regarding the providers see “Experimental”
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
FAME loading plot for PC1 and PC2 and its relationship to the scores portrayed in Fig. 2. The different supplements and providers are designated by numbered letter Ks. For details regarding the providers see “Experimental”
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
PC1 and PC4 score plot for the fish and marine mammal oils obtained after computing a 24 × 34 (samples × FAME profiles) data matrix. RSA1 and RSA2 are refined seal oils from provider A and from different batches. CSA is crude seal oil from provider A. RSB is refined seal oil from provider B. WM and WC are molecularly and conventionally distilled whale oils from the same provider. For details regarding the providers see “Experimental”
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
FAME loading plot for PC1 and PC4 and its relationship to the scores portrayed in Fig. 4
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
PC1 and PC4 score plot for the various genuine marine oils and three samples of adulterated whale oil (WC) with cod liver oil at different proportions (90:10, 80:20 and 50:50). The PCs were obtained after computing a 33 × 34 data matrix. RSA1 and RSA2 are refined seal oils from provider A and from different batches. CSA is crude seal oil from provider A. RSB is refined seal oil from provider B. WM and WC are molecularly and conventionally distilled whale oils from the same provider. For details regarding the providers see “Experimental”. PC1 and PC4 score plot for genuine and adulterated fish and marine mammal oils by using the full FAME profiles

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