Troponin-mediated Ca²(+)-regulation governs the actin-activated myosin motor function which powers striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle contraction. This review focuses on the structure-function relationship of troponin T, one of the three protein subunits of the troponin complex. Molecular evolution, gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin T isoforms in skeletal and cardiac muscles are summarized with emphases on recent research progresses. The physiological and pathophysiological significances of the structural diversity and regulation of troponin T are discussed for impacts on striated muscle function and adaptation in health and diseases.
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