Immunological aspect of cardiac remodeling: T lymphocyte subsets in inflammation-mediated cardiac fibrosis

Exp Mol Pathol. 2011 Feb;90(1):74-8. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2010.10.004. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Abstract

Cardiac fibrosis is defined as a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) in the myocardium. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling is primarily mediated by cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Evidences suggest that various T lymphocyte phenotypes differentially affect organ fibrosis through modulating CF collagen and MMP/TIMP gene expression, MMP activity and cardiac collagen cross-linking, leading to altered ECM composition. In regard to the importance of cytokines in cardiac fibrosis and heart failure, in this review, we will address the role of different T cell subsets in inflammation-mediated cardiac fibrosis, from a distinct perspective of T cell and fibroblast interaction. We conclude that in addition to preventive strategies, therapies based on deviation of Th1/Th2 paradigm, and manipulation of Tregs and Th17 would show promising results in future studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Collagen / genetics
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix / genetics
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / physiology
  • Fibrosis / pathology
  • Heart Failure / genetics
  • Heart Failure / metabolism
  • Heart Failure / pathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism*
  • Myocarditis / immunology*
  • Myocarditis / pathology
  • Myocardium / immunology
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / physiology*
  • Ventricular Remodeling / immunology*

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Collagen