Hydrogen release from titanium hydride in foaming of orthopedic NiTi scaffolds

Acta Biomater. 2011 Mar;7(3):1387-97. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.10.008. Epub 2010 Oct 20.


Titanium hydride powders are utilized to enhance the foaming process in the formation of orthopedic NiTi scaffolds during capsule-free hot isostatic pressing. In order to study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release during the heating process are systematically investigated in air and argon and under vacuum by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, including thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our experiments reveal that hydrogen is continuously released from titanium hydride as the temperature is gradually increased from 300 to 700 °C. Hydrogen is released in two transitions: TiH1.924→TiH1.5/TiH1.7 between 300 °C and 400 °C and TiH1.5/TiH1.7→α-Ti between 400 °C and 600 °C. In the lower temperature range between 300 °C and 550 °C the rate of hydrogen release is slow, but the decomposition rate increases sharply above 550 °C. The XRD patterns obtained in air and under vacuum indicate that the surface oxide layer can deter hydrogen release. The pressure change is monitored in real time and the amount of hydrogen released is affected by the processing temperature and holding time. Holding processes at 425 °C, 480 °C, 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C are found to significantly improve the porous structure in the NiTi scaffolds due to the stepwise release of hydrogen. NiTi scaffolds foamed by stepwise release of hydrogen are conducive to the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts and the resulting pore size also favor in-growth of cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Hydrogen / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Nickel / chemistry*
  • Powders
  • Thermogravimetry
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Powders
  • Nickel
  • Hydrogen
  • Titanium