Chemical conjugates between sodium cellulose sulfate (CS), displaying contraceptive and HIV-entry inhibiting properties, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (FLT), or 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC)) were designed to simultaneously provide contraceptive and anti-HIV activity. Two linkers, acetate and succinate, were used to conjugate the nucleoside analogs with CS. The conjugates containing cellulose sulfate-acetate (CSA) (e.g., AZT-CSA and FLT-CSA) were found to be more potent than CS and other conjugates (e.g., AZT-succinate-CS, and FLT-succinate-CS). The presence of both sulfate and the acetate groups on cellulose were critical for generating maximum anti-HIV activity. In addition to showing equal potency against wild-type and multidrug resistant HIV-1, the AZT-CSA conjugate displayed significant contraceptive activity in an animal model, providing the initial proof-of-concept for the design and synthesis of dual-activity compounds based on these combinations.
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