Aims: Natural history and prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in HIV-infected patients remain to be determined. We sought to compare coronary risk factors, angiographic features, acute results of percutaneous coronary intervention, in-hospital outcomes, and pre-specified 1 year prognosis of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with ACS.
Methods and results: HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with a first episode of ACS were matched for age (±5 years), sex, and type of ACS. The primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE), comprising cardiac death, recurrent ACS, recurrent coronary revascularization, and stroke. Overall, 103 HIV-infected and 195 HIV-uninfected patients were enrolled (mean age 49.0 ± 9.4 years, 94% men). Coronary risk factors were well balanced, but HIV-infected patients more frequently used illicit drugs (23 vs. 6%, P = 0.001) and had higher triglyceride concentrations (246 ± 189 vs. 170 ± 139 mg/dL, P = 0.002) compared with HIV-uninfected patients. Angiographic features of coronary artery disease were similar (multivessel disease 41 vs. 39%, P = 0.96; ACC/AHA type culprit lesion ≥B2, both 77%, P = 0.83). At 1 year, the rate of occurrence of first MACCE did not differ between groups [hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.0]. Recurrent ACS was more frequent in HIV-infected patients (HR 6.5, 95% CI 1.7-23.9) with no difference in the rate of clinical restenosis.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the acute management of ACS in HIV-infected patients can routinely be the same as that of HIV-uninfected patients, but that specific secondary prevention measures are needed to alleviate the increased risk of recurrent ACS.