The Nrf2 system as a potential target for the development of indirect antioxidants

Molecules. 2010 Oct 20;15(10):7266-91. doi: 10.3390/molecules15107266.


Oxidative stress causes damage to multiple cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and is implicated in various human diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, inflammatory diseases, and aging. In response to oxidative attack, cells have developed an antioxidant defense system to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and to protect cells from damage. The thiol-containing small molecules (e.g. glutathione), reactive oxygen species-inactivating enzymes (e.g. glutathione peroxidase), and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes (e.g. NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 and glutathione-S-transferases) are members of this antioxidant system. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a CNC-bZIP transcription factor which regulates the basal and inducible expression of a wide array of antioxidant genes. Following dissociation from the cytosolic protein Keap1, a scaffolding protein which binds Nrf2 and Cul3 ubiquitin ligase for proteasome degradation, Nrf2 rapidly accumulates in the nucleus and transactivates the antioxidant response element in the promoter region of many antioxidant genes. The critical role of Nrf2 has been demonstrated by various animal studies showing that mice with a targeted disruption of the nrf2 gene are prone to develop lesions in response to environmental toxicants/carcinogens, drugs, and inflammatory insults. In this review, we discuss the role of the Nrf2 system, with particular focus on Nrf2-controlled target genes and the potential pleiotropic effects of Nrf2 activation of indirect antioxidants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Molecular Structure
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • Reactive Oxygen Species