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Review
, 15 (10), 7313-52

Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

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Review

Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

Jin Dai et al. Molecules.

Abstract

Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in-vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Structures of flavonoids, phenolic acids and tannins.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Structures of stilbenes and lignan.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Strategies for preparation and characterization of phenolic samples from plant materials. Abbreviations: MAE, microwave-assisted extraction; UAE, ultrasound-assisted extraction; PFE, pressurized fluid extraction; PLE, pressurized liquid extraction; ASE, accelerated solvent extraction; SWE, subcritical water extraction; SFE, supercritical fluid extraction; SPE, solid phase extraction; CCC, countercurrent chromatography; FD, Folin-Denis method (FD), F-C, Folin-Ciocalteu method; GC, gas chromatography; LC, Liquid chromatography; FLU, fluorescence; PDA, photodiode array; EAD, electro-array detection; ECD, electrochemical detection; MS, mass spectrometric; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Potential anticancer mechanisms of plant phenolics during cancer development.

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