Consumer complaints against the blandness of modern lean meat and the frequent reference to the more strongly flavored meat that was available years ago have prompted reconsideration of high fat-depositing typical pig breeds. Casertana and Large White pig breeds are characterized by a different tendency toward fat accumulation as they exhibit opposite genetic and physiological traits with respect to the energy metabolism. These physiological differences were investigated in longissimus lumborum muscles through proteomics (2-DE, MS/MS) and microarray approaches. Data were analyzed for pathway and network analyses, as well as GO term enrichment of biological functions. As a result, Casertana showed a greater amount of proteins involved in glycolitic metabolism and mainly rely on fast-mobilizable energy sources. Large White overexpressed cell cycle and skeletal muscle growth related genes. Metabolic behavior and other implications are discussed.