Approaches to monitoring biological outcomes for HPV vaccination: challenges of early adopter countries

Vaccine. 2011 Jan 29;29(5):878-85. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.018. Epub 2010 Nov 5.


In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic outcomes is a complex and challenging task, but also plays an important role in documenting the benefit of vaccination, monitoring the progress of vaccination programs, and providing data to inform vaccination and disease prevention policies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Epidemiologic Methods*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Techniques*
  • Papillomaviridae / immunology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines