A randomized crossover study of the effects of glutamine and lipid on the gastric emptying time of a preoperative carbohydrate drink

Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr;30(2):165-71. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2010.09.008. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Abstract

Background & aims: Supplementing preoperative carbohydrate drinks with glutamine may lead to benefits in addition to reducing insulin resistance, but amino acids may delay gastric emptying (GE). The effects of supplementing a preoperative carbohydrate drink (CCD) with glutamine or lipid on GE were studied.

Methods: Ten healthy male volunteers ingested 410 ml of one of three isocaloric-isovolumetric carbohydrate-based drinks labelled with (99m)Tc-DTPA: CCD (preOp(®), Nutricia, UK, 50 g carbohydrate), CCD/G (preOp(®), 36 g carbohydrate + 15 g glutamine) or CCD/L (preOp(®), 36 g carbohydrate + 7 g lipid) in this randomized, blinded, three-way crossover study. After baseline measurements, GE was measured scintigraphically and blood sampled for insulin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) at 20 min intervals for 240 min.

Results: Mean (95% CI) T(90) GE times for CCD, CCD/G and CCD/L were 101 (87-115), 95 (84-107) and 87 (72-102) min, respectively. At 40 min postprandially, mean (SEM) concentrations of glucose (mmol/l) and insulin (mIU/l) were 7.5 (0.5) and 35 (5) for CCD; 6.2 (0.2) and 28 (4) for CCD/G; and 7 (0.3) and 31 (5) for CCD/L, respectively. There were no differences in postprandial GLP-1 concentrations.

Conclusions: Glutamine and lipid supplementation did not prolong the GE of CCD but did 'blunt' postprandial glucose and insulin responses, independent of GLP-1 concentrations. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT00943020.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Beverages*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Eating
  • Ethnic Groups
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Glutamine / administration & dosage*
  • Glutamine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipids / administration & dosage*
  • Lipids / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Preoperative Care*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Carbohydrates
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Glutamine
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00943020