N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides starting with pyroglutamate (AβpE3) represent a major fraction of all Aβ peptides in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. AβpE3 has a higher aggregation propensity and stability and shows increased toxicity compared with full-length Aβ. In the present work, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (9D5) that selectively recognizes oligomeric assemblies of AβpE3 and studied the potential involvement of oligomeric AβpE3 in vivo using transgenic mouse models as well as human brains from sporadic and familial AD cases. 9D5 showed an unusual staining pattern with almost nondetectable plaques in sporadic AD patients and non-demented controls. Interestingly, in sporadic and familial AD cases prominent intraneuronal and blood vessel staining was observed. Using a novel sandwich ELISA significantly decreased levels of oligomers in plasma samples from patients with AD compared with healthy controls were identified. Moreover, passive immunization of 5XFAD mice with 9D5 significantly reduced overall Aβ plaque load and AβpE3 levels, and normalized behavioral deficits. These data indicate that 9D5 is a therapeutically and diagnostically effective monoclonal antibody targeting low molecular weight AβpE3 oligomers.