Several studies have shown the protective effects of dietary enrichment of various lipids in several late-onset animal models of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, none of the studies has determined which structure within a lipid determines its detrimental or beneficial effects on AD. High-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) shows that saturated fatty acids (SFAs), upstream omega-3 FAs, and arachidonic acid (AA) resulted in significantly higher secretion of both Aβ 40 and 42 peptides compared with long chain downstream omega-3 and monounsaturated FAs (MUFA). Their distinct detrimental action is believed to be due to a structural template found in their fatty acyl chains that lack SFAs, upstream omega-3 FAs, and AA. Immunoblotting experiments and use of APP-C99-transfected COS-7 cells suggest that FA-driven altered production of Aβ is mediated through γ-secretase cleavage of APP. An early-onset AD transgenic mouse model expressing the double-mutant form of human amyloid precursor protein (APP); Swedish (K670N/M671L) and Indiana (V717F), corroborated in vitro findings by showing lower levels of Aβ and amyloid plaques in the brain, when they were fed a low fat diet enriched in DHA. Our work contributes to the clarification of aspects of structure-activity relationships.