Conventional and innovative strategies can be exploited to identify and characterize new allergenic proteins. With the aim of obtaining suggestions for future improvements, this article describes our attempt to understand and describe some of the advantages and pitfalls of the methodologies and procedures often used in this field. The analysis includes the protein extract preparation, starting from the allergenic source, the separation of the proteins contained in a mixture and the detection, identification and characterization of IgE-binding molecules. Classic and emerging proteomic technologies, including mass spectrometry-based methodologies, Edman degradation procedure, microarray-based techniques and bioinformatics search strategies, have been explored. A comparative analysis of biochemistry-based proteomics and molecular biology strategies has also been given.