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, 50 (1), 66-77

4-O-Methylhonokiol Attenuates Memory Impairment in Presenilin 2 Mutant Mice Through Reduction of Oxidative Damage and Inactivation of Astrocytes and the ERK Pathway

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4-O-Methylhonokiol Attenuates Memory Impairment in Presenilin 2 Mutant Mice Through Reduction of Oxidative Damage and Inactivation of Astrocytes and the ERK Pathway

Young Jung Lee et al. Free Radic Biol Med.

Abstract

Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutation increases Aβ generation and neuronal cell death in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. In a previous study, we showed that increased oxidative damage and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were associated with Aβ generation and neuronal cell death in neuronal cells expressing mutant PS2. In this study, we show that oral treatment with 4-O-methylhonokiol, a novel compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, for 3 months (1.0mg/kg) prevented PS2 mutation-induced memory impairment and neuronal cell death accompanied by a reduction in Aβ(1-42) accumulation. We also found that 4-O-methylhonokiol inhibited PS2 mutation-induced activation of ERK and β-secretase, and oxidative protein and lipid damage, but recovered glutathione levels in the cortex and hippocampus of PS2 mutant mice. Additionally, 4-O-methylhonokiol prevented PS2 mutation-induced activation of astrocytes as well as production of TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) in neurons. Generation of TNF-α, IL-1β, ROS, and NO and ERK activation in cultured astrocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide (1μg/ml) were also prevented by 4-O-methylhonokiol in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the improving effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on memory function may be associated with a suppression of the activation of ERK and astrocytes as well as a reduction in oxidative damage. Thus, 4-O-methylhonokiol may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD.

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