Thoracic defects: cleft sternum and Poland syndrome

Thorac Surg Clin. 2010 Nov;20(4):575-82. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2010.06.001.


Defects of the thoracic cage with bone and/or muscle deficit are relatively rare and can present a real risk depending on the severity of manifestations. Cleft sternum results from failed midline fusion of the sternal halves that leaves the heart and great vessels unprotected, and is commonly associated with craniofacial hemangiomas. Correction is recommended during the neonatal period when compliant thorax allows direct suturing of the divided sternum. Sternal foramen requires precaution during biopsy and acupuncture as well as forensic awareness. In addition to the thoracic defect, Poland syndrome can be associated with hand anomalies, dextrocardia, renal agenesia, and various tumors. Age and gender, together with the degree of the defect, define the method of surgical correction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal Abnormalities / classification
  • Orthopedic Procedures
  • Poland Syndrome / classification
  • Poland Syndrome / surgery*
  • Sternum / abnormalities*
  • Sternum / diagnostic imaging
  • Sternum / surgery*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed