Meta-analyses of clinical trials suggest that the use of the thiazolidinedione (TZD), rosiglitazone, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of myocardial ischaemic events by 30-40%. Although these controversial data must be interpreted with caution, in the absence of definitive prospective cardiovascular (CV) outcomes data, they represent a prominent source of evidence concerning the CV safety of rosiglitazone. The results of meta-analyses and a large randomized-controlled CV outcomes trial provide strong evidence that pioglitazone does not increase the risk of coronary events. This article clarifies the clinical significance of these meta-analytical findings alongside other sources of evidence and assesses their impact on evolving treatment guidelines and recommendations for the use of TZDs in patients with type 2 diabetes.
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.