Glycated hemoglobin and the risk of kidney disease and retinopathy in adults with and without diabetes

Diabetes. 2011 Jan;60(1):298-305. doi: 10.2337/db10-1198. Epub 2010 Oct 26.

Abstract

Objective: Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and retinopathy) and formally tested for the presence of risk thresholds in the relationships of glycated hemoglobin with these outcomes.

Research design and methods: Prospective cohort and cross-sectional analyses of 11,357 participants (773 with a history of diagnosed diabetes) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

Results: During a median of 14 years of follow-up of individuals without diagnosed diabetes at baseline, clinical categories of glycated hemoglobin were associated with risk of chronic kidney disease, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.12 (0.94-1.34) and 1.39 (1.04-1.85) for glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4% and ≥6.5%, respectively, as compared with <5.7% (P trend = 0.002). The corresponding HRs for ESRD were 1.51 (0.82-2.76) and 1.98 (0.83-4.73), respectively (P trend = 0.047). In the absence of diagnosed diabetes, glycated hemoglobin was cross sectionally associated with the presence of moderate/severe retinopathy, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.42 (0.69-2.92) and 2.91 (1.19-7.11) for glycated hemoglobin 5.7-<6.5% and ≥6.5%, respectively, compared with <5.7% (P trend = 0.011). Risk associations were stronger among individuals with a history of diabetes. We did not observe significant thresholds in the associations of glycated hemoglobin with kidney disease risk or retinopathy.

Conclusions: These data from a community-based, biracial population support the use of new 2010 American Diabetes Association glycated hemoglobin cut points for the diagnosis of diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Atherosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Continental Population Groups
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retinal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Triglycerides / blood

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Triglycerides