Black cohosh (BC) has been widely applied for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. However, increasing concerns about herb-drug interactions demand the need for studies on the influence of BC on cytochrome 450. Cyp3a11 in liver was induced by 7-fold in wild-type mice treated with 500 mg/kg black cohosh for 28 days compared with the control group as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR; no difference was found in small intestine and kidney, suggesting that up-regulation of Cyp3a11 by black cohosh was liver-specific. Western blot, activity assays, and pharmacokinetic analyses established dose- and time-dependent induction of Cyp3a11. To determine the mechanism of Cyp3a11 induction, including the role of pregnane X receptor (PXR) in vivo and in vitro, respectively, in Pxr-null, PXR-humanized, and double transgenic CYP3A4/hPXR mice, cell-based luciferase assays were employed revealing that mouse PXR played a direct role in the induction of Cyp3a11; human PXR was not activated by black cohosh. Overall, these findings demonstrate that induction of Cyp3a11 is liver-specific and involved only mouse PXR, not the human counterpart. Thus, the incidence of herb-drug interaction in patients administered black cohosh may not be mediated by human PXR and CYP3A4.