A key aspect for the clinical handling of acute kidney injury is an early diagnosis, for which a new generation of urine biomarkers is currently under development including kidney injury molecule 1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. A further diagnostic refinement is needed where one specific cause among several potentially nephrotoxic insults can be identified during the administration of multidrug therapies. In this study we identified increases in regenerating islet-derived protein III beta (reg IIIb) and gelsolin as potential differential urinary markers of gentamicin's nephrotoxicity. Indeed, urinary levels of both reg IIIb and gelsolin distinguish between the nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin from that caused by cisplatin where these markers were not increased by the latter. Reg IIIb was found to be overexpressed in the kidneys of gentamicin-treated rats and excreted into the urine, whereas urinary gelsolin originated from the blood by glomerular filtration. Our results illustrate an etiological diagnosis of acute kidney injury through analysis of urine. Thus, our results raise the possibility of identifying the actual nephrotoxin in critically ill patients who are often treated with several nephrotoxic agents at the same time, thereby providing the potential for tailoring therapy to an individual patient, which is the aim of personalized medicine.