Objective: It is unclear to what extent the increased risk of colorectal cancer in individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer and no known genetic disorders is associated with a higher adenoma prevalence. Our aim is to estimate the relative difference in adenoma prevalence and its age-pattern in individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer compared to those without.
Methods: We performed a literature search to identify colonoscopy studies reporting the adenoma prevalence by age. Using multilevel logistic regression, we examined how the adenoma prevalence by age differed between individuals with and without a family history of colorectal cancer. We excluded members of families with a known genetic disorder.
Results: Thirteen colonoscopy studies were identified. The adenoma prevalence was significantly higher in individuals with a family history than in those without (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-3.5). The adenoma prevalence increased with age (OR per year of age 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07). The age trend did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Conclusion: Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer have a considerably higher prevalence of adenomas compared to individuals without a family history. This is consistent with their increased risk of colorectal cancer.