Reported in this paper is the first case of isolation of Pseudallescheria boydii from cerebral spinal fluid of a boy with meningitis in China. Morphology and culture were observed by light microscopy, electron scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, mycelium antigen prepared by SDS-PAGE was compared with that of the other strain of Scedosporium apiospermum. Both of the strains showed more than 40 peptide lines. Their molecular weight was very similar. On the CS-930 Dual-Wavelength TLC Scanner the peaks of both antigens showed to lie in nearly the same position. It could be concluded that Pseudallescheria boydii and Scedosporium apiospermum belong to the same genus, but they are of different strains and reproductive phases.