Three representative types of houses in Beijing were selected and, in each type, smoking and nonsmoking households were compared, IP, RP, and CO concentrations in the living room and kitchen were monitored during each season, and the level of COHb in the heads of the households were measured. The study showed that indoor air pollution was rather severe, especially during winter, when particulate concentrations markedly exceeded the standard and CO concentration was as high as 47 ppm. Indoor air pollution was closely related to the type of house, particularly to the mode of heating. In houses, of the same type, pollution improved greatly after central heating facilities were installed. Analysis of 30 elements revealed that pollution was typically caused by coal burning, aggravated by dusty wind, but high indoor Pb levels were probably due to the use of LPG for cooking. In our study the effect of cigarette smoking was sometimes masked by the severe indoor pollution.