Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 24;58(22):11913-23. doi: 10.1021/jf1022065. Epub 2010 Oct 28.


Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Melanoma / drug therapy*
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Metastasis*
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Random Allocation
  • Solanum nigrum / chemistry*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9