Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is used with increasing frequency in patients with diabetes and multivessel disease. This study investigated evolving revascularization strategies in the State of Washington.
Methods: The Clinical Outcomes Assessment Program captures all revascularization in the State of Washington and was used to compare diabetic patients with multivessel disease undergoing first-time revascularization from 1999 to 2007. Categorical variables were compared with the chi-squared test and continuous variables were compared with the student's t-test. Results were risk-adjusted using a logistic regression.
Results: A total of 11,602 patients with diabetes and multivessel disease underwent revascularization from 1999 to 2007 and were nearly equally divided between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (51%) and PCI (49%). Patients undergoing CABG had a higher (p < 0.0001) prevalence of congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), and intraaortic balloon pump insertion, but a lower prevalence of female gender, cardiogenic shock, and emergency procedures. Patients undergoing CABG had more (p < 0.0001) three-vessel CAD and more complete revascularization (3.7 vs. 1.5 lesions treated). Short-term risk-adjusted mortality was equivalent. The prevalence of PCI increased from 34.1% in 1999 to 59.4% in 2007.
Conclusions: PCI is applied with increasing frequency to patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and multivessel disease. PCI is used most commonly in two-vessel CAD or with acute coronary syndromes with more limited and targeted revascularization. CABG is more commonly applied to extensive disease with more complete revascularization. Both the prevalence and percentage of patients undergoing PCI as primary therapy for multivessel disease with DM is increasing. A multidisciplinary approach may be warranted to ensure optimal outcomes.
© 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.