Vaccines work by eliciting an immune response and consequent immunological memory that mediates protection from infection or disease. Recently, new methods have been developed to dissect the immune response in experimental animals and humans, which have led to increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control differentiation and maintenance of memory T and B cells. In this review we will provide an overview of the cellular organization of immune memory and underline some of the outstanding questions on immunological memory and how they pertain to vaccination strategies. Finally we will discuss how we can learn about antigen design from the interrogation of our memory T and B cells-a journey from vaccines to memory and back.
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