The sequence of microbial genomes made all potential antigens of each pathogen available for vaccine development. This increased by orders of magnitude potential vaccine targets in bacteria, parasites, and large viruses and revealed virtually all their CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell epitopes. The genomic information was first used for the development of a vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus, and it is now being used for several other bacterial vaccines. In this review, we will first summarize the impact that genome sequencing has had on vaccine development, and then we will analyze how the genomic information can help further our understanding of immunity to infection or vaccination and lead to the design of better vaccines by diving into the world of T cell immunity.
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